(on leave 1/1 - 30/06/2019)

Associate Professor: He studied philosophy (major), psychology and political sciences (minors) at Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-University in Frankfurt, Germany. After graduation he travelled for nine months in Central America. Back in Germany he continued studying philosophy in Berlin, where he also visited the Latin American Institute. He received his PhD in Würzburg. He was Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter (scientific co-worker) at Humboldt-University Berlin in 2002-2003, and Research Associate in the Oxford Leverhulme Programme on the Changing Character of War at the Department of Politics and International Relations at Oxford University in 2004-2007. He has published numerous articles and four books.


  • 2014 Research Output Prize (Faculty of Social Sciences), The University of Hong Kong
  • 2013 Faculty Knowledge Exchange Award, The University of Hong Kong

Selected Publications

( some online links, further links below)

  • “Right Intention: A Reply to Janzen, Purves, and Jenkins,” Journal of Military Ethics (2018, Latest Articles),
  • “Replies,” San Diego Law Review 55 (2018), pp. 469-538.
  • Against a ‘Combined Liability-Lesser-Evil Justification,’” Philosophia (Online First, 2018),
  • “The Secret to the Success of the Doctrine of Double Effect (and Related Principles): Biased Framing, Inadequate Methodology, and Clever Distractions,” Journal of Ethics 22 (3-4) (2018), pp. 235–263.
  • “Wild Goose Chase: Still No Rationales for the Doctrine of Double Effect and Related Principles,” Criminal Law and Philosophy (Online First, 2018),
  • “Bennett, intention and the DDE – The sophisticated bomber as pseudo-problem,” Analysis 78(1) (2018), pp. 73-80.
  • “Just Cause and the Continuous Application of Jus Ad Bellum,” in Larry May (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of the Just War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018), pp. 80-97
  • “Proportionality in Self-Defense,” Journal of Ethics 21(3) (2017), pp. 263-289.
  • “Saba Bazargan-Forward and Samuel C. Rickless (eds.), The Ethics of War: Essays,” (invited book review), Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews (2017),
  • “Is There a Duty to Militarily Intervene to Stop a Genocide?” in Christian Neuhäuser and Christoph Schuck (eds.), Military Interventions: Considerations from Philosophy and Political Science (Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2017), pp. 59-80.
  • “Stephen Kershnar, Gratitude Toward Veterans: Why Americans Should Not Be Very Grateful to Veterans” (invited book review), Journal of Value Inquiry, 50(2) (2016), pp. 479-481.
  • “When May Soldiers Participate in War?” International Theory 8(2) (2016), pp. 262-296.
  • “The Liability of Justified Attackers,” Ethical Theory and Moral Practice (Online First 2016), DOI 10.1007/s10677-016-9712-y.
  • “Renzo’s Attempt to Ground State Legitimacy on a Right to Self-Defence, and the Uselessness of Political Obligation,” Ratio Juris 29(1) (2016), pp. 122–135.
  • “Self-Defense as Claim Right, Liberty, and Act-Specific Agent-Relative Prerogative,” Law and Philosophy 35(2) (2016), pp. 193-209.
  • “Justifying Defense Against Non-Responsible Threats and Justified Aggressors: the Liability vs. the Rights-Infringement Account,” Philosophia: Philosophical Quarterly of Israel 44(1) (2016), pp 247-265.
  • “What Is Self-Defense?” Public Affairs Quarterly 29(4) (2015), pp. 385-402.
  • "Matthew H. Kramer, Torture and Moral Integrity: A Philosophical Inquiry" (invited book review, 2015), Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal.
  • “Über die unüberwundenen Begründungsdefizite der ‘Kritischen Theorie‘ – Von Habermas zu Forst” (“On the Enduring Justificatory Shortcomings of ‘Critical Theory‘ – From Habermas to Forst”), Zeitschrift für kritische Sozialtheorie und Philosophie 2(1) (2015), pp. 67-100.
  • (ed.) Do All Persons Have Equal Moral Worth? On ‘Basic Equality’ and Equal Respect and Concern, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2014.
  • “Why We Shouldn’t Reject Conflicts: A Critique of Tadros,” Res Publica 20(3) (2014), pp. 315-322.
  • "Just Cause and ‘Right Intention,’” Journal of Military Ethics 13(1) (2014), pp. 32-48.
  • “Rainer Forst, Justification and Critique,” (invited book review), Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews, April 2014.
  • “Helen Frowe’s ‘Practical Account of Self-Defence’: A Critique”, Public Reason 5(1) (2013), pp. 87-96.
  • “Against Pogge’s ‘Cosmopolitanism’”, Ratio 26 (2013), pp. 329-341.
  • “Rodin on Self-Defense and the ‘Myth’ of National Self-Defense: A Refutation”, Philosophia 41 (2013), pp. 1017–1036.
  • “Killing Them Safely: Extreme Asymmetry and its Discontents”, in Bradley Jay Strawser (ed.), Killing by Remote Control: The Ethics of an Unmanned Military, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2013, pp. 179-207.
  • On the Ethics of Torture, State University of New York Press, Albany, 2013.
  • "Cécile Fabre, Cosmopolitan War," (invited book review), Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews, April 2013.
  • Why ‘We’ Are Not Harming the Global Poor: A Critique of Pogge’s Leap from State to Individual Responsibility,” Public Reason 4 (2012), pp. 119-138.
  • “The Moral Equality of Modern Combatants and the Myth of Justified War”, Theoretical and Applied Ethics 1(4) (2012), pp. 35-44. (The issue also contains comments on this article by Michael Neu and by Gerald Lang.)
  • “Unsavory Implications of A Theory of Justice and The Law of Peoples: The Denial of Human Rights and the Justification of Slavery”, The Philosophical Forum 43(2) (2012), pp. 175-196.
  • “Legalizing Defensive Torture”, Public Affairs Quarterly 26(1) (2012), pp. 19-32.
  • “Rights, Liability, and the Moral Equality of Combatants”, The Journal of Ethics 16(4) (2012), pp. 339-366.
  • “The Guerrilla Strikes Back: A Comment on Yvonne Chiu”, Diametros 30 (2011), pp. 61-75.
  • “Killing Civilians”, in Hew Strachan and Sibylle Scheipers (eds.), The Changing Character of War, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2011, pp. 381-393.
  • “In Defense of Warlords”, in Jovan Babic (ed.), Assymetric Wars, International Relations, and the Just War Theory (Philosophical Yearbook 23/2010 of the Faculty of Philosophy of the University of Belgrade) (published 2011), pp. 175-195.
  • “Ethics and Mercenaries”, in Paolo Tripodi and Jessica Wolfendale (eds.), New Wars and New Soldiers: Military Ethics in the Contemporary World, Ashgate, Farnham and Burlington 2011, pp. 137-151.
  • “Torture Can Be Self-Defense: A Critique of Whitley Kaufman” Ethics & International Affairs22(1) (2008) (online only, posted 2011).
  • “Benbaji on Killing in War and ‘the War Convention’”, The Philosophical Quarterly (60) 2010, pp. 616-23.
  • “Defusing the Ticking Social Bomb Argument: The Right to Self-Defensive Torture“, Global Dialogue 12(1) (2010).
  • “In Defence of Guerrillas”, Diametros 23 (2010), p. 84-103.
  • The Philosophy of Jürgen Habermas: A Critical Introduction, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2009.
  • “Jeff McMahan: Killing in War” (book review), Cambridge Review of International Affairs 22(3) (2009), S. 245-246.
  • “Justifying Defensive Torture”, in Beverly Clucas, Gerry Johnstone, Tony Ward (eds.), Torture: Moral Absolutes and Ambiguities, Nomos, Baden-Baden 2009, pp. 43-67.
  • “Jeff McMahan on the Moral Inequality of Combatants”, Journal of Political Philosophy 16 (2008), pp. 220-226.
  • “What Are Mercenaries?” in Andrew Alexandra, Deane-Peter Baker, Marina Caparini (eds.),Private Military and Security Companies: Ethics, Policies and Civil-Military Relations, Routledge, London 2008, pp. 19-29.
  • On the Ethics of War and Terrorism, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2007.
  • “Why There Is No Barbarization but a Lot of Barbarity in Warfare”, in George Kassimeris (ed.),The Warrior's Dishonour: Barbarity, Morality and Torture in Modern Warfare, Ashgate, London and Burlington 2006, pp. 101-111.
  • “Yet another revised DDE? A Note on David K. Chan's DDED”, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice (2006), pp. 231-236.
  • “Torture: The Case for Dirty Harry and against Alan Dershowitz”, Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (2006), pp. 337-353. Reprinted in David Rodin (ed.), War, Torture and Terrorism: Ethics and War in the 21st Century, Blackwell, Oxford 2007, pp. 97-113. Also reprinted in an abridged version in John Arthur und Steven Scalet (eds.), Morality and Moral Controversies: Readings in Moral, Social and Political Philosophy, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2008.
  • Effiziente Ethik: Über Rationalität, Selbstformung, Politik und Postmoderne (Efficient Ethics: On Rationality, Self-Formation, Politics and Postmodernity), Mentis, Paderborn 2006.
  • “Commentary: Moral Ambiguities in the Bombing of Monte Cassino”, Journal of Military Ethics4(2) (2005), pp. 142-143.
  • “How Can Terrorism Be Justified?”, in: Igor Primoratz (ed.), Terrorism: The Philosophical Issues, Palgrave, Basingstoke 2004 , pp. 139-156.
  • “Justificación, liberalismo y democracia radical” in: Ricardo Maliandi, Alberto Damiani (eds.), Es peligroso argumentar? Ensayos sobre política y argumentación I, Suarez editor, Mar del Plata 2003, pp. 155-167.
  • “On the Concept, Function, Scope, and Evaluation of Justification(s)”, Argumentation 14 (2000), pp. 79-105.
  • “Truth vs. Rorty”, Philosophical Quarterly 47 (1997), pp. 358-361. Reprinted in: Alan Malachowski (ed.), Richard Rorty, Sage, London 2002.
  • “Menschenrechte als Tauschgeschäft? Zur Theorie Otfried Höffes” (“Human Rights as Barter? On the Theory of Otfried Höffe”), Philosophisches Jahrbuch 105/I (1997), pp. 170-175.